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Home » Usual Exhibitions » Showroom #3

 
Showroom #3 : Counterinsurgency Campaign and Battle of the Taiwan Strait

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2007/07/11


1. Introduction

     China communists took the advantage of the war and pretended to fight together with the government while actually expending their military power. They rebelled after the victory of War against Japan. In 1949, the situation of Counterinsurgency Campaign reversed, the R.O.C government was forced to migrate to Taiwan. Our Armed Forces annihilated communist army at Kuningtou Battle and Tengpu Island to stabilized the situation under such adversity. In 1958, Chinese communists launched Taiwan-strait Campaign on August 23. Our armed forces jointly fought back, and smashed their ambitions to take over Taiwan, which ensured stability and prosperity of Taiwan. 
     The showroom exhibits 3 topics in chronological order:

  1. Rebel of China Communists
  2. Communizing of China
  3. Battle of the Taiwan Strait

2. Plan of Showroom #3

Plan of Showroom #3


《Foreword》

     Soon after victory of the Sino-Japanese War, the Chinese communists openly resisted to obey order and refused to turn over weapons to the government. The Nationalist Armed Forces were coerced to enforce truce for a third time at the U.S. military intervention and mediation. However, the purpose of the Chinese communists was to usurp power, the Nationalist Government thereby ordered mobilization to restore order. The Chinese communist armed forces were fully grown and were able to confront the Nationalist Armed Forces. Battle results were in favor of the Chinese communists. After defeat at the Jinshen Battle, Pingjin Battle and Xubang Battle, the Nationalist Armed Forces were unable to reverse the situation. When peace talks broke down, the communist armed forces crossed the river and Mainland China rapidly succumbed to communist rule.
After relocation to Taiwan, the Nationalist Government retrained and reorganized the revolutionary force. The Nationalist Armed Forces trounced the communist forces in the Guningtou and Dengbudao battles and finally stabilized the situation. For strategic consideration, the Nationalist Armed Forces and civilians on Zhoushan and Dachen were transferred to Taiwan to concentrate forces to defend Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and the Matsu islands. In 1958, the Chinese communist armed forces launched the 23 August Taiwan Straits battle but was frustrated by our three armed forces, thereby laying down the base for national survival and development.

《Rebel of China Communists & Communizing of China》

     Throughout the Sino-Japanese War, the Chinese communists adopted the strategy of “70% for development, 20% for pretentious fighting and 10% for fighting against the Japanese”, while the Nationalist Armed Forces were engaged in bloody battles against foreign aggression. The communist armed forces grew in strength secretly and started to harass and attack the tired out Nationalist Armed Forces after the Sino-Japanese War. Their tactics of surrounding the cities from the countryside succeeded. At the same time, they incited anti-war, anti-Americans and anti-government movements among the students in large cities. Coupled with serious inflation, the morale of the Nationalist Armed Forces ebbed. Bilateral confrontation began with acceptance of Japanese surrender in northeast China and our armed forces were forced to launch pacification battles against the communists. Restricted by “Truce”, the Nationalist Armed Forces retreated to the south bank of Songjiang River and morale was seriously undermined. Military actions to restore order became more and more passive and led to final fiasco. To suppress the communist rebellions, the Nationalist Government promulgated mobilization to restore order on 4 July, 1947 and triggered an all-out civil war with the communists.

Pacification and Reverse of War

      The three major battles Jinshen, Pingjin and Xubang militarily reversed the situation to restore order. By fall 1948, the Nationalist Armed Forces were isolated by the communist armed forces in Shenyang, Changchun and Jinzhou. The communist armed forces launched the Jinshen battle on 12 September and successfully captured Shenyang on 2 November due to division of opinions among the Commanding Headquarters of Northeast China. Defeat in the Jinshen battle reversed the military strength between the nationalist and the communist armed forces.
     By early January 1949, Lin Biao led 7 squadrons to besiege Beijing and forced Fu Zuoyi to sign a truce with the communists. The turning point, however, was defeat in the Xubang battle on 6 November. After this defeat, the political situation in China rapidly deteriorated.

Relocation of R.O.C. Government to Taiwan

     The Chinese communist troops crossed the Yangtze River in April, 1949 and the Nationalist Armed Forces failed to deter their advance. From May to December 1949, the communist forces captured Hangzhou, Shanghai, Fuzhou, Xiamen and Guangzhou. The inland Nationalist Armed Forces finally retreated to Sichuan and Xikang, and the entire mainland China was lost to the Chinese communists at the collapse of Xichang on 26 March, 1950.
     The R.O.C Government moved its capital to Taipei on 8 December, 1949 and turned Taiwan Province into a base for mainland recovery. To shelter the defense of Taiwan and to make preparations for counter-offensives, the Nationalist Armed Forces actively defended the mainland offshore islands; targeting to liberate Taiwan, the communist armed forces were in preparation to attack these offshore islands. Owing to subjective and objective conditions, the Nationalist Armed Forces gave up Pingtan, Hainan, Zhoushan and Dachen islands from 1950 to 1955, and concentrated forces to defend Kinmen and Matsu isalands. Thus, only Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu were under jurisdiction of the R.O.C. Government.

《Battle of the Taiwan Strait》

Battle of Defense in Kinmen

     On the afternoon of 24 October, 1949, the Chinese communist armed forces attacked the northern coast of Kinmen under night cover. This was the prelude to the defense of Kinmen. It was blowing northeasterly winds, the communist warships carrying over 10,000 troops landed Guningtou in the wee hours of 25 October. The 118th and 201st Divisions of the Nationalist Armed Forces launched a counter-offensive against the enemy. To unify command, the Nationalist Armed Forces assigned general Hu Lian of the 12th Corps in charge of the battle and also ordered Gao Kui-yuan, commander of the 18th Army, to launch a counter-offensive with his 14th, 18th and 118th Divisions against Guningtou. Under naval and air support, our armed forces surrendered thousands of communist troops and won a glorious victory on 27 October afternoon. This battle comple

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