| || |
|Showroom #1 : From establishment of Whampoa Army to reunion after the Northern Expedition |
When Republic of China was just founded, part of the country was still fragmented because of the warlords. Dr. Sun Yat-Sun realized that the revolution would not be accomplished without developing the revolutionary forces. As a result, he decided to establish Whampoa Military Academy in Whampoa, Guangdong Province, on June 16th, 1924. The school army then reformed to National Revolutionary Army. In July, 1926, the Forces launched the Northern Expedition under the belief of “Down With Imperialism, Eliminate the Warlords, Save the Compatriots”. It only took two and half years to complete the reunion of China.
This showroom exhibits 7 topics in chronological order:
- China Falling Apart
- Army, Navy and Air Force before the establishment of Whampoa Military Academy
- Creation of Whampoa and its Army
- Two Eastward Expeditions
- The Northern Expedition
- The Reunion of China
- Photos of Figures
2. Plan of Showroom #1
The First Exhibition Room mainly introduces the glorious deeds of Whampoa Military Academy from its founding in 1924 through 1928 when accomplishing the northern expedition for nation unification.
Since the founding of the R.O.C., Dr. Sun Yat-sen realized that without a revolutionary force, the Chinese revolution could not hope for a complete success. Henceforth, he found the Whampoa Military Academy in 1924 and appointed Chiang Kai-shek as the Principal. The Academy aimed to train a revolutionary army to save China.
The Whampoa Military Academy was inaugurated on June 16, 1924. The troops of the Academy put down the “Shangtuan Rebellion” in October 1924 and launched two eastern expeditions to unify Guangdong Province in 1925. The National Revolutionary Army defeated the warlords Wu Pei-fu, Sun Chuan-fang and Chang Tso-lin and completed unification by July 9, 1926.
《China Falling Apart 》
The Whampoa Military Academy was found in a chaotic situation of “division of the north and south, warlord occupation and menace from foreign powers”. This chaotic situation was ended by 1928 following complete success of the National Revolutionary Army.
Political turmoil continued after the founding of the R.O.C. with Yuan Shi-kai usurped the nation, and a litany of warlords enforcing separatist rule with various independent governments. On the other hand, the foreign powers menaced to annex China. Aggression came mainly from northern Russia, eastern Japan and western imperialism. They colluded with the military warlords of various spheres of influence and incited incidents to worsen the situation in China.
《Army, Navy and Air Force before the establishment of Whampoa Military Academy》
Prior to the founding of the Whampoa Military Academy, our army and navy development can be traced back to 1860 with the Self-Strengthening Movement in late Qing Dynasty. Prior to the founding of the Whampoa Military Academy, the northern army boasted one million soldiers but the pro-constitution government in Guangzhou had only an army of 100,000 rank and file. In the early republic era, the number of warships was around 100 and they were split into the northern fleet and southern fleet with the division of the north and the south. Generally speaking, the naval force of the northern government was much stronger than the southern pro-constitution government in the south. The result of this development was the “Northern Army” and the “Northern Sea Fleet.” Dr. Sun Yat-sen greatly promoted building our own air force in the early years of the republic.
The notable difference in the development of our army, navy and air force before and after the establishment of the Whampoa Military Academy is to instill revolutionary ideology in the modern armed forces and let them understand the armed forces do not belong to the warlords.
《Creation of Whampoa and its Army 》
The founding of the Whampoa Military Academy was full of vicissitudes. The revolutionary army in Guangzhou had to face the rebellious forces led by Chen Jiong-ming and also had to beware of the infiltration of warlord troops, led by Yang Xi-min and Liu Zhen-huan, in the revolutionary army. On the other hand, the Hong Kong British supported Shangtuan in Guangzhou also attempted to overthrow the government. During the early period, the Academy encountered difficulties in recruiting students. The Academy also lacked sufficient financing; student uniforms were gray clothing and the students had no stocks but only straw sandals. They slept on bamboo beds in make-shift tents. They had scarce teaching aids, insufficient weapons and ammunitions and even had to worry about the daily meals.
Chiang Kai-shek, Principal of the Whampoa Military Academy, recalled: “The Academy was found and run secretly by comrades under leadership of Premier Sun and Party delegate Liao in dire poverty.”
《Two Eastward Expeditions》
Two Eastern Expeditions were launched in 1925 in a move to eliminate menace to the Guangzhou revolutionary base from enemies.
In his military report to the National Assembly, Chiang Kai-shek pointed out that Guangdong Province in 1924 faced enemies from inside and outside: the inside enemies referred to Chen Jiong-ming, Lin Hu, Hong Zhao-lin, Deng Ben-yin and Shen Bao-fang; the outside enemies referred to the Hong Kong British people and the Beijing Government. Simply said, Guangdong was then under the threat of different spheres of influence and this was precisely the reason for necessity of the Eastern Expedition.
《The Northern Expedition》
The main purpose of the founding of the Whampoa Military Academy was to end warlord occupations and to unify the whole of China. After victory in the two eastern expeditions, the Revolutionary Government was reorganized on July 1, 1925 to form the Nationalist Government, and the various military units were reorganized to form the National Revolutionary Army in August. After repeated consultations, Guangdong and Guangxi were unified and the Northern Expedition was under preparation.
Chiang Kai-Shek became commander-in-chief of the National Revolutionary Army and held ceremony